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Physics applications in Medicine and Biology

الاثنين، 29 أغسطس 2016



Physics applications in Medicine and Biology



Introduction:
In this topic, we will talk about physics applications in medicine and biology.

In medicine, we will talk about:
   ·         Therapeutic Radiologic Physics Program.  
   ·         X-Rays.
   ·         Radiology Medical Diagnostic types and their used.
   ·         Nuclear Medicine.

In biology, we will talk about:
            ·         Energy applications of nanotechnology.



Therapeutic Radiologic Physics Program



About the Program:
 
The Radiation Oncology Physics Residency Program is a two-year program designed for individuals with a M.S. or Ph.D. degree in Medical Physics from aCAMPEP-accredited graduate program, who seek post-graduate training in clinical radiation oncology physics. The program's primary focus is on clinical training in all aspects of radiation oncology physics. Residents who successfully complete the program should be well-prepared for the certification examinations in the specialty of Therapeutic Radiological Physics administered by the American Board of Radiology.

The Clinical Residency Program training involves full-time participation of the physics resident in the clinical routine under the supervision of experienced radiation oncology physicists.

 Comprehensive training and experience is provided in the areas of radiation safety, radiation machine calibration, quality assurance, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, treatment aid design and fabrication, and brachytherapy.
 The therapeutic radiologic physics residency program consists of seven quarterly rotations over a period of two years.


Accreditation:

The UF Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health therapeutic radiologic physics residency program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP) through December 2012. Additional information is available at CAMPEP's website and at the American Association of Physicists in Medicine website.


Application and Program Performance Information:

The following program performance information is provided in accordance with CAMPEP accreditation requirements. For the most recent application cycle for which resident applications were accepted, June 2013, there was one applicant, who was offered and accepted admission.  One resident graduated in 2013, and a former resident successfully completed certification in Therapeutic Radiologic P.


X-Rays

Brief Background:

¡  X-rays were first discovered accidentally by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895.

¡  X-rays are waves of electromagnetic energy that have a shorter wavelength than normal light.

¡  He discovered that these new invisible rays could pass through most objects those casted shadows including human tissue but not human bones and metals.

¡  Within a year of the discovery many scientists replicated the experiment Röntgen performed and began using it in clinical settings . 

¡  In 1901 Röntgen won the first Nobel Prize in Physics. 


How They Were Discovered:



¡  Röntgen discovered the new ray while working with a cathode tube in his laboratory.

¡  The tube was a glass bulb that had positive and negative electrodes inside. When the air was removed from the tube, and a high voltage was applied it produced a florescent glow.

¡  To further observe the rays he positioned a screen in front of the tube. He began placing various objects between the screen and the tube that was emitting the X-rays.

¡  He discovered that the rays or “invisible light” passed right through pieces of black paper and thin sheets of aluminum and copper but that the light did not pass through blocks of lead and his bones and instead these objects casted shadows on the screen. This is because these objects have higher density so there is less space between their atoms for the rays to pass through.


Shortly After the Discovery:

¡  Röntgen began using his discovery to do his own X-rays on things such as his wife's hand, and weights in a box.

¡  Other scientists began to replicate the experiment because it was easy using a cathode tube.

¡  Interest in the rays began to increase and many magazines and newspapers began reporting on them.
 People were very fascinated by the discovery although a few feared it, and that it would allow strangers to see through walls, which is now known to be inaccurate.


Radiology Medical Diagnostic types and their used





Since the discovery of the Radiology X-ray x- ray by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen before more than 100 years and specifically in 1895, and science Radiology Evolving rapidly, especially in the last 30 years, and have had to discover Radiology Since the beginning of this century a significant impact in the areas of medical diagnosis and developed applications Radiology And which kinds are used in therapeutic and diagnostic.

Currently, in sections Radiology medical several types of scans both the diagnostic or therapeutic area, which is usually a separate section of the Department of Radiology , diagnostic Radiology treatment often used in the treatment of cancerous tumors.


Types of devices Radiology and their uses:

1. Rays regular:

The rays are often used to portray the different body parts, such as limbs, normal chest, skull, portraying fractions, these give a normal x-ray film depending on portion size to be filmed and the type of radiation used is x-ray, or ionizing radiation.

2. Fluoroscopy endoscopes:

 These also use x-ray or x-ray, the patient is usually given colored dye taken by mouth to examine the digestive system or give to patient intravenously for imaging kidneys and urinary or imaging veins, as well as the type of radiation used in imaging the bladder and urinary tract with injected colored directly in the bladder or the urinary tract, as well as possible photographing of the uterus and the uterine ducts to diagnose the causes of female infertility.

3. Your mammography Mammography:

A special device is used to detect and diagnose breast cancer and early detection of breast tumors could be sampling these tumors when needed with the help of these devices, there is a trend in many advanced countries to use this type of scans routinely to women in SMEs and to assist in the early detection of breast cancer.


Nuclear Medicine



Nuclear medicine and the use of radioactive isotopes:

The use of radioactive materials (radioisotopes radioisotopes) in the medical field is one of the latest advancements in modern medicine. Nuclear Medicine is the medical branch which they are used radioactive isotopes to diagnose and treat some diseases of others, has been named nuclear strikes relative to the nucleus of an atom, a radiation emitted from the radioactive material source is nuclear medicine of the newest technology applications in the medical field.


Radioactivity of radioactive materials:


Radioactivity of radioactive materials Radioactivity is a self-decomposition of the nucleus of an atom of radioactive material and this decomposition varies from substance to another to give different types of radiation, such as gamma radiation or beta radiation.
The article defines the number of protons in its nucleus . 

For example, if the corn nucleus contains one proton is called a hydrogen atom, which contains two protons called the helium atom, which has three protons called the lithium atom.

The use of radioactive materials for diagnostic:



Radioactive materials are used in the estimation of the proportion of hormones and other substances in the blood are also used in cases of radiological survey of the many members of the human body and we will address it in some detail. Use of radioactive isotopes in the estimation of the amount of certain substances, drugs and hormones in the blood, using a device called a counter pulsed Scintillation counter and by withdrawing a sample of the patient's blood and the separation of serum (plasma) Serum and add the peer your article assigned to him irradiated. 

For example, in the estimation of the hormone thyroxin ratio, which is produced by the thyroid gland using iodine 125 and then placed in a counting device that pulsed through the computer connected to this device is read the proportion of the presence of the substance in the blood and in a manner calculations and graphs are calculated estimate of the amount of the substance in the blood.

Energy applications of nanotechnology

Scientists and engineers have been developing energy applications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology , a new field in science, is any technology that contains components smaller than 100 nanometers. . An important subfield of nanotechnology related to en is nanofabrication. Nanofabrication is the process of designing and creating devices on the nanoscale. The inherent level of control that nanofabrication could give scientists and engineers would be critical in providing the capability of solving many of the problems that the world is facing today related to the current generation of energy technologies. Benefits such as these make the investment of capital in the research and development of nanotechnology a top priority.

Reduction of energy consumption:

A reduction of energy consumption can be reached by better insulation systems, by the use of more efficient lighting or combustion systems, and by use of lighter and stronger materials in the transportation sector. Currently used light bulbs only convert approximately 5% of the electrical energy into light. Nanotechnological approaches like or quantum caged atoms (QCAs) could lead to a strong reduction of 
energy consumption for illumination.


Increasing the efficiency of energy production:

Today's best solar cells have layers of several different semiconductors stacked together to absorb light at different energies but they still only manage to use 40 percent of the Sun's energy. Commercially available solar cells have much lower efficiencies.

The degree of efficiency of the internal combustion engine is about 30-40% at present. Nanotechnology could improve combustion by designing specific catalysts with maximized surface area. In 2005, scientists at the University of Toronto developed a spray-on nanoparticle substance that, when applied to a surface, instantly transforms it into a solar collector.[3]


Nuclear Accident Cleanup and Waste Storage:

Nanomaterials deployed by swarm robotics may be helpful for decontaminating a site of a nuclear accident which poses hazards to humans because of high levels of radiation and radioactive particles. Hot nuclear compounds such as corium or melting fuel rods may be contained in "bubbles" made from nanomaterials that are designed to isolate the harmful effects of nuclear activity occurring inside of them from the outside environment that organisms inhabit.


Economic benefits:

      The relatively recent shift toward using nanotechnology with respect to the capture, transfer, and storage of energy has and will continue to have many positive economic impacts on society. The control of materials that nanotechnology offers to scientists and engineers of consumer products is one of the most important aspects of nanotechnology. This allows for an improved efficiency of products across the board.



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