Water pollution

السبت، 1 يوليو، 2017

Water pollution

What is water pollution ?
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies ( lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds

what types of water pollution ?
1) Surface water pollution.
Hazardous substances coming into contact with surface water, like rivers, lakes, lagoons and oceans, and dissolving or mixing physically with the water is called surface water pollution.
2) oil pollution.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity. Oil spills usually have only a localized affect but can spread.
3) Chemical Water Pollution.
Many industries and farmers work with chemicals that end up in water. These include chemicals that are used to control weeds, insects and pests. Metals and solvents from industries can pollute water bodies.
4) Thermal pollution
Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water.
5) Ground Water Pollution.
When humans apply pesticides and chemicals to soils, they are washed deep into the ground by rain water. This gets to underground water, causing pollution underground.
6) Agricultural Pollution
Sediment soil washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States. Farmers may utilize to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields.

What are causes of water pollution ?

1) Industrial waste:
 Industries produce huge amount of waste which contains toxic chemicals and pollutants which can cause air pollution and damage to us and our environment. They contain pollutants such as lead, mercury, Sulphur, asbestos, nitrates and many other harmful chemicals. Many industries do not have proper waste management system and drain the waste in the fresh water which goes into rivers, canals and later in to sea. The toxic chemicals have the ability to change the color of water, increase the amount of minerals, also known as Eutrophication, change the temperature of water and pose serious hazard to water organizations.
2) Sewage and waste water:
The sewage and waste water that is produced by each household is chemically treated and released in to sea with fresh water. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can cause serious health problems. Pathogens are known as a common water pollutant; The sewers of cities house several pathogens and thereby diseases. Microorganisms in water are known to be causes of some very deadly diseases and become the breeding grounds for other creatures that act like carriers. These carriers inflict these diseases via various forms of contact onto an individual. A very common example of this process would be Malaria.
3) Mining activities:
 Mining is the process of crushing the rock and extracting coal and other minerals from underground. These elements when extracted in the raw form contains harmful chemicals and can increase the amount of toxic elements when mixed up with water which may result in health problems. Mining activities emit several metal waste and sulphides from the rocks and is harmful for the water.

4. Marine dumping:
The garbage produce by each household in the form of paper, aluminum, rubber, glass, plastic, food if collected and deposited into the sea in some countries. These items take from 2 weeks to 200 years to decompose. When such items enters the sea, they not only cause water pollution but also harm animals in the sea.
5) Global warming:
 An increase in earth’s temperature due to greenhouse effect results in global warming. It increases the water temperature and result in death of aquatic animals and marine species which later results in water pollution.
6)Animal waste:
The waste produce by animals is washed away into the rivers when it rains. It gets mixed up with other harmful chemicals and causes various water borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, jaundice, dysentery and typhoid.

What are sources of water pollution ?
There are various classifications of water pollution. The two chief sources of water pollution can be seen as Point and Non Point.
- Point refer to the pollutants that belong to a single source. An example of this would be emissions from factories into the water.
- Non Point on the other hand means pollutants emitted from multiple sources. Contaminated water after rains that has traveled through several regions may also be considered as a Non point source of pollution.

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